Posts Tagged ‘PNG’

Dear Family and Friends,

Reviewing my travels in 2013, I computed that I had been away from home on ministry trips for 194 days of the year, bringing to mind Richard Baxter’s comment in his Saints’ Everlasting Rest: “If you were banished into a strange land, how frequently would your thoughts be at home!” I wasn’t banished, but I did often think of home as I traveled. Therefore, I can relate to his words and have been pondering his next thought, “And why is it not thus with us in respect to heaven?” How my thoughts need to be even more directed to my heavenly home!


October was probably the busiest month I’ve ever had in ministry. It began with my winding up the workshop in Benin. After being home for five days, I headed to Texas for the annual Bible translation conference. I’m thankful for the ideas I gleaned and for the relationships I made.

I returned to the office for two days before heading out again for Bob Jones University’s missions emphasis week. I PRAISE the Lord for the opportunities to preach twice in chapel and to speak in six different classes. PRAY for laborers and supporters to join us because of that trip.


After I returned from BJU, I had five days to prepare for my two-week trip to PNG (Oct. 31 to Nov. 18). I knew the trip would really stretch me, because the translators hadn’t sent much work ahead of time, so I would need to prepare in the evenings instead. I was also preparing myself to follow up the translator training that I had given them in February. It wasn’t until I was on my way, though, that I could begin those preparations. So, on the planes and in other places along the way, I began reading up on Tok Pisin grammar. This reading, along with Tok Pisin’s close relation to English, gave me enough knowledge to be able to understand the translation without the need for an English back-translation. That made the workshop even more enjoyable, as I could personally enter into the translators’ discussions of how best to word the text, even sometimes giving my own suggestions.

It was humbling but also very fulfilling to train the translators more on translation principles and methods and to teach them such important concepts as the differing nuances for “grace” and “righteousness.” It was also a privilege to hand out to believers for the very first time some of our translated material. We did a small trial edition of Philippians 1 so we could see history in the making right away–and so they could have our translation to begin using!



I had less than a week after the PNG trip to prepare for my workshop in Haiti, partly because I made a surprise visit to my family in South Carolina for Thanksgiving. This meant that I had to do much of my preparations during the workshop in the evenings. But God’s grace was present once again, especially in helping me to begin to be able to read the Haitian Creole directly without a French or English back-translation. This and other factors helped us to finish checking Exodus 2.5 days early! It also allowed the translator to focus just on the Creole. PRAY for the translator as he wraps up work on the soon-to-be published revised New Testament with Psalms and Proverbs.

PRAISE God also for carrying me through a very rigorous 2013! I couldn’t have made it through without your prayers!

Merry Christmas and Happy New Year,


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I would say that I hit the ground running when September rolled around, but it seems like I’ve been off the ground almost more than I’ve been on the ground since then. I did a Chad-Niger-Benin trip in September and early October. The rest of October was filled with a trip to Texas for a conference, a trip to South Carolina for another conference, and then a trip to PNG for a translation checking workshop. I just returned on Monday but will be heading out a week from tomorrow for a translation checking workshop in Haiti. Needless to say, I’ll be very thankful when Christmas arrives as I’ll be taking a very needed break from a very hectic schedule.

The Lord answered so many prayers during my time in PNG. I was concerned about preparations for this trip, because I knew I had only a few days between trips to get ready for it. I became even more concerned when the translators didn’t submit the texts for me to study. I wanted to teach them the linguistics of their language, but it wasn’t until I was heading there that it finally became clear how I could prepare. So in the planes and in a busy expo lobby in Singapore, I worked through two grammar write-ups of Tok Pisin to assemble linguistics notes about that language. I concentrated primarily on issues that I thought would be pertinent to the task of translating. The translators were very appreciative of this linguistic perspective. Though I didn’t intend this, I also found that this preparation helped me follow better the translation discussions in the workshop. Normally I just have to sit patiently and wait as the the translators talk in their language and try to figure out how better to word the material. But this time, I could follow right along with them and even gave my own suggestions on how to translate the material. It made the workshop so much more enjoyable!

It was also a great joy to teach these men, who were such eager learners. I had to review many of the translation principles and methods that I taught in February, because they had forgotten or misunderstood them. I guess it’s a matter of it being theory in February but now it’s reality in November. I also thoroughly enjoyed overviewing the Gospels and Acts during our devotion time, to bless their hearts and to prepare them for translating these books in the upcoming months.

The Lord blessed greatly our checking of Mark 1, 1 John 1:1-2:12, 3 John, and Philippians. I wondered how we could improve upon the poor translation of Mark 1:4 by the other two Tok Pisin versions, but we did. I wondered if Tok Pisin had the linguistic resources to translate the noun chain of “baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sins,” and I happily found out that it does. Various ones have questioned whether or not we can do a better translation than what has already been done, because this “Pidgin English”, which is actually a creole, is very limited in its vocabulary and linguistic structures. But after doing this workshop with them, I am confident that Tok Pisin is capable of saying what needs to be said! It may have taken a half hour to do a single verse, but eventually the Lord led us to good solutions. In some cases, I asked the men to take the work home to think about it overnight. Then each man presented their translation. It was interesting to see that each did a different translation, sometimes quite different, confirming once again that Tok Pisin has many ways of saying basically the same thing.

We finished the first chapter of Philippians during the first week, so the Lord gave me the idea to have do a historic thing the following Sunday–read from our translation in a church for the first time in history! We printed the text on both sides on half sheets of paper and then the head consultant read the first 11 verses. What a joy it was to be part of the distribution of that text and then to hear the people’s positive responses as they received our translation!


A significant event connected with this workshop was the mudslide that occurred about 2 hours away on the Sunday that I arrived. What made this mudslide significant for us was that it kept two translators from coming to to the workshop when they wanted. Both finally arrived, though they were delayed by about 2 days each. Here’s the story of the slide as well as one of the translator’s still-muddy shoes the day after he arrived.

Pastor John Danny lives by Mt. Hagan, and it normally takes around 3 hours to arrive in Goroka. But there was a mudslide almost 2 hours outside Goroka. Because people were buried alive in the mud (the current count is 9), they wouldn’t allow anyone to walk across the mudslide to the other side (to get a bus on the other side). John found a pastor friend whose house he could sleep in for Sunday night. On Monday he saw that the mudslide was still impassable, so he and the group he was with tried to take another road. But he soon found out that the locals had blocked that road, demanding money for passage. They tried another road and found the same situation. And so on for any road they tried. So, they went back to the main road. The locals still forbid to allow people to pass because of the dead bodies in the mud, so John had to stay a second night with his pastor friend. While John was waiting to pass, the Bible school student he was with encouraged him to return home. John’s wife also said he should just go back. But John was determined to keep going! By Tuesday he and the others decided that they would walk across the mudslide even though the locals were still forbidding it. Some were throwing sticks and stones at those who walked across, but John kept walking (and wasn’t hit by anything). Some locals also stole stuff from the people walking across, but once again John was kept safe from that. During much of these days of waiting to cross, it was pouring down rain. In spite of the rain, the angry locals, and the multiple failed attempts, John kept pressing on, arriving in Goroka on Tuesday evening, wearing clothes and shoes caked in mud. The mudslide problems linger on as the locals are demanding 6 million kina (over $200,000) from the government, as if they are responsible for the disaster.



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As expected this month has been filled with activities, but it has also been full of God’s blessings. The month began with me doing a Dendi OT workshop in Benin. By the end of the week I was heading to Niger to fly to France on my way to the US. I haven’t said much about my time in France yet. My trip to Africa included a 5-day stop in France and then a one-day stop on the way back. The first stint was the most interesting. I was able to do a Paris tour on a boat on the Seine River with a friend. I’m afraid I was too focused on taking pictures that I didn’t keep up with all that the guide said, but I picked up on some things here and there. I was so jetlagged that I took a nap along the shores of the Seine before continuing on. We had dinner at a cool restaurant along one of the busy streets before heading to our respective places for the night.

The following day we enjoyed touring the chateau at Versailles. We lost a lot of time at the beginning since we had a hard time figuring out where to find each other. It’s hard to do things without a cell phone (mine didn’t work, though I called to get it unlocked!). But at least we were able to spend a few hours there. The opulence was overwhelming, but so was the paganism. The French kings decorated certain rooms in honor of Greek gods.

My time in northern France went much more smoothly, since I was with a friend who knew her way around. We spent a day touring Rouen, walking along its old streets and learning about Joan of Arc. Then we had coffee with friends at a quaint little coffee shop. Very fun! On Saturday we visited the beaches of Normandy. It was very moving to see the beaches and cliffs (see picture) that the soldiers were on in 1944. We also toured the cemetery where many were laid to rest. The tour guide gave us snippets into the stories of some buried there–the youngest soldier, a journalist, a “donut dolly,” etc. We even got to see Point du Hoc, which is basically an untouched battlefield. The large craters from the bombs are still mostly unfilled (except from the erosion through the years). Very moving!


A highlight of the time in northern France was getting to meet various Christians as we ate together and then as we worshiped together. I got to preach in French that Sunday morning. It was a great joy! I was pleased to see so many in attendance (around 60), but I was surprised that most were born outside of France–a very international membership (the majority from Africa).

On my second time through France on the Africa trip, I spent time with Tim Bixby and his family. I also got to distribute tracts near an international market. Then I toured the Musée de l’Armée. I got to see where Napeleon was buried. I also enjoyed seeing the armory used in years gone by. Oh, and I crashed on the lawn in front of that museum after the tour, since I didn’t get much sleep during the overnight trip from Africa. I thoroughly enjoyed the fellowship with the Bixbys before heading to the US the next morning.

A few days after I returned to the US, I jumped on yet another plane to attend a Bible translation conference in Dallas, Texas. The Lord gave me the perspective to focus on the commonalities of those in attendance, though we are from different denominations and have differing translation and ministry philosophies. Most there are born again believers, and probably all are sincere in their desire to help people. They are also wrestling with the same issues that we are at BI. I learned much from the various sessions, made new friends, and found out about valuable resources. It was so much more profitable than I thought it would be! I’ll share one tidbit. I was taught that the OT text is not simply oral text that has been written down. Though the Hebrews had a tradition of the learned reciting the Scriptures repeatedly and the learners saying it back until it became ingrained in their memories, it doesn’t mean that the text evidences being the product of an oral culture. It’s a much more complex situation than that! It was truly intended to be written text from the beginning.

I returned to Michigan for a few days and was able to do prepare for my time at Bob Jones University. I was excited to be back at my alma mater, but I was also quite nervous about speaking in chapel on the following Monday and Tuesday. But thanks to the prayers of many, I had a great calm as I spoke in front of over 3,000 people, and I was able to share the message the Lord had laid on my heart. It was very cool to have been the chapel speaker, because that gave me an immediate in-road into the lives of many students. I could just strike up a conversation with them, since they already knew who I was. I was quite encouraged by the positive comments I heard and by the students’ interest in my ministry. I hardly had a dull moment at the BI booth! That’s also due to the fact that I spoke in 6 different classes (1 Greek, 2 NT, 2 French, and 1 speech pathology), as well as my mom’s homemade cookies at my booth! Time will tell how the Lord waters the thoughts I was able to plant in the students’ minds, as I tried to get them to think about the many roles needed to fulfill the ministry of Bible translation.

I returned to Michigan on Friday and immediately had to prepare for a meeting at the office. I have another meeting tomorrow afternoon. Otherwise, I’m spending most of the rest of the time preparing for the upcoming PNG trip. I leave on Thursday. The translators didn’t send me the text in the right format, so they are scrambling to get that fixed. So far, I’ve only received two chapters of text. Pray I can receive lots more by tomorrow, as I have slated Tues and Wed to prepare. I usually spend a couple of weeks doing prep, but I have only 2 days left for that before I leave. It’s going to be a grueling trip! Pray for strength as this is the fourth trip since early September!

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Below is my latest prayer letter. I will include an addendum below that to tell about my “stolen credit cards” incident.

God has been impressing upon my heart the need to take God’s Word more seriously. Recently, I saw a video segment in which one guy decided he would ignore the danger sign about the sharks and go for a swim anyway in the Australian waters. His friend said something like, “Around 200 people have died in these waters. Either you are going to accept that they are telling you the truth, or you are going to think that they are just trying to ruin your fun.” Sometimes I don’t take God’s Word seriously, as if He doesn’t mean what He says–but God does mean what He says, and He knows what is best for me. I must trust everything He says.


I’m now in the midst of the busy last four months of the year, and I need your prayers now more than ever. I just returned from a five-week trip to Chad and Benin (including six days of vacation in France). I and a consultant-in-training worked with the Sara Madjingaye team to check their translation of 2 Kings. I PRAISE the Lord that we finished the book within the timeframe I had allotted.

Then, I traveled to Benin via Niger. While at the capital of Niger, I was able to meet up with various people to determine the potential for a revision of the Zarma Bible that we finished in 1994. Please PRAY for wisdom in how to proceed. As always, the factors to consider are quite complicated.

After three days in the capital, I drove with a missionary family and one of their missionary co-workers through southwestern Niger, known for its herds of giraffes and camels. Just like last year, I saw only the camels! The workshop started the day after we arrived. Along with the missionary coordinator, we worked through the Dendi translation of the first ten books of the Old Testament to prepare them for a trial edition to be published this year. We conducted “quality checks” to evaluate the consistent and proper translation of key terms in all ten books and to bring parallel passages into closer alignment. We worked on such things as the names of God, words for “tabernacle” and “temple,” and the “offering” words. The checks can be quite tedious; but they are important and they must be done with great care, lest we accidentally undo what had been carefully thought through earlier in the process. PRAY for the missionary coordinator as he helps the translation team finish up the last, numerous minor corrections. Bible school starts in January, and they want these ten books by then.


On October 11-15, I will be attending a Bible translation conference in Texas. This conference is a key event every other year in which those in the same line of work can rub shoulders and learn from each other how to do our work better, so PRAY that this time will be profitable.

On October 21-25, I will be representing Bibles International at the Bob Jones University Missions Emphasis week. While there, I will be speaking twice in chapel and doing presentations in six different classes. PRAY for the Lord to awaken hearts to the great need of Bible translation and for Him to give me grace in speaking.

On November 4-15, I will meet with the Tok Pisin NT in PNG team to check their first assignments and provide more training. PRAY for grace to keep up with all these assignments and for God’s blessings of power, provision, and protection. On December 2-13, I’ll go to Haiti to work with the Haitian Creole translator to finish up work on the soon-to-be published NT with Psalms and Proverbs.

ADDENDUM: To catch my plane back to the US last Thursday, I took a public bus from Benin to the capital of Niger. The “seat reservation” issue in Niger is a story in itself, but I won’t tell that here (basically, you sit, wait, and pray that there will be an empty seat when the bus arrives). After waiting almost 3 hours, a bus with two empty seats (one for me and one for an African who was traveling with me) arrived. These 70-passenger buses are quite comfortable: tinted windows, curtains to block the hot African sun, air conditioning, and padded seats. Leg room was somewhat limited, since the aisle was pretty full with various items. When I first got on, I saw no empty seats, so I started making my way over the items in the aisle toward the back. I finally found something, thanks partly to the help of the other passengers, four rows from the back.

At one police checkpoint the officer checked the identification cards of various passengers, including mine. I had to open my travel wallet to get my passport out (an important detail to keep in mind). Since I travel so much, there are lots of pages and stamps in it. The officer couldn’t find my Niger border-crossing stamp, and neither could I. After stepping off the bus and calling various people, he finally found it.

After we had ridden for over half of the trip and had made various pit stops, we made yet another one. We stopped in the middle of no where in Niger at the intersection of two dirt roads. As I had done before, I left my backpack on the bus. I knew no strangers would get on the bus, and I figured that since other passengers left their stuff on the bus, so could I. My bag, however, was probably unlike any other in that I had various expensive items in it: a brand new camera, an Android phone, a computer, a digital recorder, a presentation pointer, a Kindle, and a few other things. I also left my travel wallet in there (in a zipped pocket), that had some money and three credit cards. I tried to keep from “flashing” all these items during the trip, lest I attract unnecessary attention, but I couldn’t help opening my wallet when the officer wanted to see my passport.

During the stop I enjoyed playing around with a few kids and talking to various adults, including one African who had an American flag patch on his shirt, as well as a name patch with “Joe” written on it. I enjoyed joking with him that I was pleased to meet an American named Joe, though I knew he wasn’t. I got back on the bus because I wanted to give a few coins to some of the poor kids I was playing with. I doubted I had any coins, but I checked my wallet to make sure. That’s when I saw that my credit cards were gone. I told my traveling companion, and he alerted the bus helper (the guy who helps the driver with collecting money, dealing with various issues that come up, etc.). He went back to my seat and looked around and may have said something to the people, but that was it. Once we got rolling again, I decided to “preach a little sermon” (in French) to the three rows of around 20 people seated behind me. I informed them that someone back there had stolen my credit cards but that I wanted them back. I assured them that the credit cards would be useless immediately, because I would just call and cancel all 3 accounts (the bus helper also added a few comments to support what I was saying). Of course, everyone denied it, so there was nothing more I could do, except pray for the situation. I sat down and was trying to absorb what just happened, especially thinking about the great inconvenience this had caused since it meant having to call the companies from Niger, resetting all accounts, and updating any accounts linked to those cards. After about 5 minutes of doing that, I just happened to look down at my feet, and I saw two of my cards. I picked them up and looked around some more, and there was the third card!

Then, I felt terrible that I had accused the passengers, because I figured I must have let them fall out of my wallet. After agonizing for about a minute about what to do, I stood up and faced the back three rows once again. I showed them my cards and apologized for falsely accusing them. They then notified the bus helper, who was sitting in the front of the bus, that I had gotten my cards back, so now the whole bus knows that the only white guy has three credit cards. Now I definitely needed to keep a close eye on my cards!

But as I sat down and thought about what must have happened, I realized that there was no way those cards could have fallen out of my travel wallet. The pockets were just too tight to allow that. Therefore, they must have been stolen. Apparently, someone got “under conviction” about stealing my cards and returned them to me. I guess it’s because they realized they were of no value. My guess is that all the passengers in the last three rows knew what really happened and may have even worked together to get the cards returned under my seat. I can’t say I know all that happened that afternoon nor did I understand all the French words that were tossed around among the people, but I sure am thankful that God caused my cards to get returned! I praise Him for answering prayers and giving me protection!

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Dear Family and Friends,

I thank the Lord for a precious truth, given to me at the beginning of my 10-week trip, that would carry me throughout the entire time. It came at a coffee shop just outside the Kolkata airport, while I was preparing for the Simte OT workshop. As I was working through the Simte translation of Ruth, I came across the Simte rendering of “Almighty.” The Simte use the compound word Bangkimbawltheipa, which means “the One who can do everything.” I reflected on that truth and saw God demonstrate it in my life throughout the trip.


My first destination was northeast India, where I led a consultant seminar and conducted a workshop on the book of Numbers in Simte. The seminar provided good opportunities for discussion about our Asia projects and growth in my knowledge of the Hebrew verb in biblical poetry.


My next assignment loomed large in my mind because of the grueling nature of the first three weeks and the stressful aspects of the second two weeks. I flew to New Britain Island just off the cost of the main island of PNG to do the first portion, a workshop to check as many chapters of the Kaulong NT as possible. We normally limit our daily time with the translators to six-seven hours because of the intense nature of the work; but because we had to complete all the checking during my workshop and a co-worker’s workshop immediately after mine, we really had to stretch ourselves. We worked eight-nine hours each day, and I had to work another one-two hours each evening to prepare more material. But the Lord gave unusual strength and stamina, and we were able to finish 59 chapters! My co-worker then completed the remaining 28 chapters and began the quality checks to prepare the text for publication. PRAISE God for answering prayer!


Pray for these men as they begin their work!

Pray for these men as they begin their work!

The next stop was in the highlands of PNG. During the two weeks there, a total of 25 men participated in the training. I had never taught through the entire translator training course by myself, nor had I ever guided people through the process of setting up a new project—but with God’s grace and the help of a BI co-worker, everything fell into place just beautifully! Five translators from four different provinces have already begun the translation of the new Tok Pisin (Pidgin English) NT! PRAISE God for paving the way for things start up so well! Please PRAY for grace as they continue the work.


While I was in India, an opportunity opened up to participate in a missions conference in Guam, so I headed there after my time in PNG. It was a blessing to give Harvest Baptist Church a better understanding of the worldwide need for Bible translation and to pass on information to help them better meet the translation needs on the Pacific islands. My trip concluded with a quick weekend in Singapore and a week in Myanmar, where I met with consultants and helped the Tedim Chin NT team with the remaining material to be checked before publication.

My next major assignment is teaching the second portion of Basic Linguistics at Maranatha Baptist Bible College in May. My next overseas trip is not until September, when I’ll be going to Africa. Thank you for your continued prayers!

For the Cause of Christ,


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Update from Today

This week the translation team for the Tok Pisin NT have begun translating the NT into Tok Pisin! The training finished up well last week. I praise the Lord for what He enabled us to accomplish in just two weeks. I marvel at how well things came together that last week, and I know it’s in answer to your prayers. 25 men were present for all or parts of the workshop: 9 became members of the Sponsorship Committee (the administrative committee for the project), another 9 (some are on the previous committee too) became members of the Read-and-Review Committee (the committee responsible for making the translation clear, natural, and beautiful in Tok Pisin), another 5 made up the translation team (representing 4 different provinces in PNG, which is important since there are dialect differences in the various provinces), and 5 were designated as “local readers” (working individually to check for the clarity, naturalness, and beauty of the translation).

The men showed real enthusiasm and commitment to the task. They produced a vision statement for the project: “To produce a conservative translation of the NT in Tok Pisin that is accurate with the original Greek text and is in clear, natural, and beautiful Tok Pisin that will be used for years to come by people of any age, educational background, province, or denomination.” They committed to spend every Tuesday in prayer and fasting for the project. Some pastors have already expressed their church’s financial commitment to the project, and others will soon be doing so. Pray for us to get 20 churches committed financially.

Pray also for the translation team as they begin their work. They bear the main brunt of the load for this project. I was particularly stirred by the chief translator’s comments as we secured his commitment to fulfill that role. He said with tears in his eyes, “I see that God has prepared my life for this.”

Last Friday I began to travel to Guam, arriving late on Sunday night. I leave tomorrow for Myanmar. I praise the Lord for refreshing my heart with this good missions conference in Guam. God is doing some wonderful things on the Micronesian Islands, and Harvest Ministries has a key role to play. I’m thankful that I can input my knowledge of translation work so that Harvest can more effectively help with the many, many translation needs in this region of the world.

Pray that the Lord would continue to sustain my spirit. I am quite “road weary” as this is the 9th of 10 weeks overseas. I’m looking to the Lord to restore my soul and help me to finish strong!

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I had very poor internet access in Goroka, partly because it was so expensive. So, I didn’t spend the money to update my blog. Here’s the update I sent out to supporters through my email program on Feb. 22:

I was unable to send out an update while I was in Hoskins, PNG, because I couldn’t use my Outlook program, where I keep the Supporters email group. I was there for three weeks. Last Thursday I began the trip to Goroka, but my email capabilities have also been limited here, partly because someone apparently stole our modem when we were in town on Monday trying to get it set up.

God abundantly answers your prayers concerning the Kaulong NT workshop in Hoskins. My goal was to finish 65 chapters. We didn’t quite hit that high goal, but we got through 59. That required beginning at 8 AM each morning and working until around 6 PM each evening. On Saturdays we would try to work at least half a day. I needed to spend a couple of hours each evening trying to get more material ready, so that we wouldn’t run out during the workshop. I didn’t fully realize how tiring the pace was until my trip to Goroka. I slept on each of the two flights and slept another 9 hours the first night I stayed in Goroka! But I praise the Lord for how He helped me and the translation team to get into a good rhythm up there, though we had a somewhat bumpy start. Now my co-worker is trying to finish up the remaining portions of the NT, and then he will begin the quality checks to prepare the NT for publication sometime next year.

God has exceeded my expectations in the way He has answered prayer for this Pidgin training workshop in Goroka. Around 20 men from various parts of the country have come together with great enthusiasm and a desire to learn. This first week of training went extremely well. I’m thankful for how He has strengthened me to explain the concepts clearly and for their ability to grasp the material. They are feeling quite overwhelmed by the complexity of Bible translation, but they are willing to keep pressing on. I praise the Lord for allowing a co-worker to join me, because he’s much more experienced and knowledgeable about setting up new projects. We make a great team by God’s grace!

Please pray for wisdom for all of us as we try to set up on Monday the 3 committees that form the basic structure of this project. It is essential that a new project be set up well, or it is doomed to failure. Considering that 7 million people speak Tok Pisin and many believers are awaiting a better translation, we cannot afford to start poorly. Pray that God would put a hedge of protection around this workshop, the men, their families, and their churches. The devil has already manifested his opposition to this project.

On Thursday I will begin my trip to the next location, Guam, for a missions conference.

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